Both "hard" and "soft" water can contain minerals that can be slightly corrosive and cause low or high pH resulting in lead in drinking water. Common sources of lead in household drinking water include:
- Lead Piping and service connections used before 1930 are highly corrodible based on the chemicals found in tap water.
- Copper fixtures contain low concentrations of lead used in their casting that can be released as the fixtures are corroded by water.
- Copper or brass pipes were often joined with lead-based solder prior to 1988.
- Wells with Brass or bronze pumps, well screens with a "lead packing collar", or packed with lead shot or lead wool, can leach lead into private systems.
According to the American Water Works Association 2012 “Buried No Longer” report, repairing and expanding the drinking water infrastructure of the US will cost over $ 1 trillion dollars if accomplished over the next 25 years and that doesn’t include the cost of removing lead in lines on private property. In light of Flint, it’s time to consider the plumbing.